First published anonymously in 1798, the essay was one of the most influential works on population in its era. One of the work's central theses held that a growing population would inevitably cause a rising supply of labor, which would cause wages to fall. Unchecked population growth would therefore lead to widespread poverty. Much debate about the work's conclusions and identity of its author followed its initial publication. By 1803, Malthus—now firmly established as the author—published a second edition. He continued to revise the work through a total of six editions. One of the lasting contributions of the work was the establishment of a national census in England, Wales and Scotland, held every 10 years beginning in 1801.